Evidence of Early Curiosity
Stonehenge in England is a circle of stones we know must have been some sort of observatory. It is clear that they used the stones to align them with heavenly movement. The solar and lunar alignments can be seen at Stonehenge. Since they had no written language we will never know the real detail of the sophisticated stone setup.
The Big Horn Medicine Wheel – North America
On the shoulder of the Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming we find a 28 spoke wheel nearly 27m in diameter. We also know this was used by the Plain Indians around 1500 AD. As with Stonehenge, the sight lines towards the horizon tell us these piles of rocks could have been a calendar to schedule life. Hunting, harvesting and celebrations. Many other sites exist but this Medicine Wheel appears to be very sophisticated in design. Indian ruins at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico have clear alignments pointing towards the rising and setting of the sun at the summer and winter solstices.
Mayan and Aztec
These people did not only record the movement of the sun and moon but clear indications are that they also indicated the extreme points where Venus rose and set. The morning and evening star and its extreme points can still be seen in the top of the circular tower in the Caracol temple in the Yucatan. Some temples in the jungles were definitely more than temples. Uncovering the remains of these ancient observatories are always exciting. Though we will only have partial knowledge of what they were used for, we know they were built by intelligent people.
The lack of written evidence is sad as we may never know the ideas and thoughts behind the building of these monuments. Dozens of artifacts were destroyed as they were seen as the work of the devil. The missionaries that spread religion also did a lot to destroy the history of ancient cultures.